What are the root causes of stretch mark scars?
What causes stretch marks is still open to discussion among specialists. Dermal inflammation and dilated capillaries mark the initial presentation, which results in an irritated appearance with characteristic pink, lavender, and purple hues. Later, the marks appear white without pigmentation and fibrotic.
Plausible causes of stretch marks
1.- Continuous and progressive stretching of weakened skin apparently leads to an excessive discharge of inflammatory promoters by free standing mast cells residing within the connective tissues ready to react whenever skin is damaged.
The immoderate inflammatory response, ingrained in our system during evolution and intended to quickly cope with damage that could become a thread to our survival, may severely injure collagen and elastin connective skin tissues. This response does not seem appropriate in today’s hygienic conditions.
Moderating inflammation with synthetic steroid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not a viable option for the prevention of stretch marks because of their many undesired and dangerous side effects, including risks of malformation of the fetus during pregnancy.
2.- Hormonal imbalances that compromise the enzyme collagenase.
Stretch marks, or striae as they are called medically, are simply scars that appear in the dermis, rather than on the epidermis, like conventional scarring from outside injuries. Most people are led to believe that stretch marks are caused by stretching the skin beyond its tensile strength, either from weight gain, pregnancy or extreme muscle-building.
Although all these things do play a role, there are hormonal imbalances during puberty that can lead to fragile skin and then stretch marks on a very young girl’s body, even if she has no rapid weight gain or loss.
The cause may well be an enzymatic disorder: principally the enzyme collagenase that determines how many collagen fibers are in place to support tissue. If this enzyme is compromised by hormonal imbalances, it can destroy the very collagen fibers it is supposed to regulate. The skin then becomes ruptured, or broken down and weakened at that point and appears on the surface as a silvery or reddened scar. The stretching of skin plays more of a role in where the marks occur.
The skin matrix is a precious resource which is both produced and consumed quite frequently during our lives. On one hand, skin matrix is continuously synthesized by fibroblasts. On the other hand, whenever it is damaged, malformed or worn out, skin matrix -particularly the structural proteins collagen and elastin- is broken down into fragments by collagenase and gelatinase enzymes, also called matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and then recycled. By digesting or chopping up key matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin, MMP enzymes play an underappreciated yet critical role in skin physiology.
In healthy, youthful skin, the synthesis and degradation of the matrix are in balance: damaged or redundant matrix is degraded while the deficit is replenished by the ongoing synthesis. Unfortunately, this intricate balance gets disrupted because of hormonal imbalances, mal nutrition, or as we age too little of the matrix is synthesized and too much is degraded. As with any supply-demand imbalance, it can be improved by either increasing supply (boosting synthesis of the matrix) or reducing demand (inhibiting the breakdown).
In particular, the synthesis of elastin is physiologically important, for although elastin is only 2% of the total protein in the dermis, those skin fibers provide the resiliency of skin. Elastin synthesis and the regulation of the quantity of cross-linked insoluble elastin and collagen fibers depend on the interaction between three factors.
1. The first is the presence of active fibroblasts, which secrete the soluble precursor of elastin, tropoelastin.
2. The second is the relative amount of several skin matrix components within the skin also secreted by fibroblasts.
3. The third are enzymes that are responsible for both the cell degradation processes that allow for the breakdown of dead cells into their component amino-acids and their re-use for the creation of new proteins (amino-acid chains).
Moisturizing skin and collagen boosters have limited success in preventing or getting rid of stretch marks
Women have tried to condition their skin with moisturizer creams or lotions while they are pregnant to avoid the stretch marks, but this only has very limited success.
Same with hyper hyped products that claim to supply the skin with soluble collagen and/or elastin, for if you understand what are stretch marks you would realize immediately why they wont even help to create the connective tissues from within that would repair the injured skin matrix.
Creams that contain soluble collagen and/or elastin will NOT do the trick. What is needed is the biosynthesis and proper self-assembly of complex skin structures from within your body. The first step in elastic fiber formation is the appearance of small cell surface-associated elastin globules (soluble tropoelastin) that increase in size with time (microassembly). The elastin globules are eventually transferred to pre-existing elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix where, through an intricate and orchestrated biological process, they coalesce into larger structures (macroassembly) and become crosslinked funtional fiber-like polymers with reversible deformation and high resilience.
Collagen and Elastin Synthesis Boosters May Fail or Fall Short in People Affected by Atrophic Skin.
The most recent stretch mark treatments and prevention products are focused on replenishing skin matrix by stimulating the synthesis of collagen or elastin (e.g. ascorbic acid, copper peptides, palmitoyl pentapeptide, oligopeptides and other). Unfortunately, this method fails to prevent or get rid of stretch marks or falls short in most people affected by atrophic skin and scar tissues, apparently due to the specific chemistry of skin affected by atrophy and an incapacity to answer to matrix synthesis boosters.
Their failure to treat existing stretch marks is possibly due to something crucial absent in those products; an element that would help your body to get rid of scar tissues.
In fact, your body needs two things to accomplish this.
- One, your body needs to be able to differentiate or identify scar tissue from the surrounding functional and healthy tissues in the skin matrix.
- Second, it must be able to degrade the fibril proteins that those scar tissues are made off and breakdown their component amino-acids liberating them to then use them to generate new skin matrix components.
This can only be accomplished by the action of three types of ingredients that act in concert.
- One is messenger molecules that are able to bridge communication between cells and thus (a) differentiate scar tissues from functional and/ or healthy tissues and (b) trigger fibroblast proliferation.
- A crucial ingredient is collagenase enzymes that dissolve the non functional, worn out, or damaged tissues that were identified by the messenger molecules.
- The third ingredient is oxygen transporting proteins that stimulate the formation of new collagen
Combined methods that consist of some form of abrading —to physically break down some of the more superficial and older scarring—, and a topical base that includes not just moisturizing enhancers or collagen synthesis boosters, but: 1) cell communicating ingredients, 2) enzymes that ‘dissolve’ damaged cells and scar proteins, 3) oxygen transporting molecules that stimulate collagen production from within, plus 4) skin regenerating activators, can effectively reduce the appearance of old stretch marks.
Prevention of stretch marks
For stretch marks prevention the recipe for success is strengthening the skin while safely moderating the inflammatory response, and this can be accomplished by topical application of the aforementioned biological serum, better than anything else.
Skin Care Products with the surprising natural immune serum are able to:
- Be applied safely on abdomen and breasts during pregnancy and breastfeeding without side effects to the mother or child.
- Soften and dissolve existing damaged tissues that show up on the surface of the skin as stretch marks with collagenase enzymes.
- Nourish the dermis with both the oxygen transporting protein haemocyanin in the serum, which helps to initiate new collagen production, and with the amino acids released from the breakdown of damaged tissues.
- Trigger the rebuilding of collagen and elastin levels by activating fibroblasts, the cells responsible for the production of all the elements of healthy skin structures.
- Stimulate the formation of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, the molecules that give skin its capacity to hold in moisture – true skin moisturizing.
- Keep pathogenic skin bacteria at bay, including acne by the action of anti-microbial peptides
- Act as a potent antioxidant with multiple modes of action at the level of free radical production and also sequestering free radicals.
- Stimulate extracellular matrix assembly and the regulation of metalloproteinase activities in dermal fibroblasts, the enzymes responsible for the balance between deterioration of damaged tissues and their replacement with new ones, contributing to the repair of skin lesions and the regeneration of healthy skin.
Removal of Scar Tissues
These scar and stretch marks treatment products operate through a removal process called hydroxylation. By continued daily application for a period of time, depending on the depth of the scarring and on how early they are treated, the natural enzymes consume, digest and breakdown the damaged skin proteins into their basic building blocks (the amino-acids) while haemocyanin brings new oxygen into the cells.
The biological serum also triggers and speeds up the proliferation of fibroblasts that are the cells responsible for the production of all the elements of the skin matrix, repair of wounded tissues and regeneration of healthy skin.
Not Just Another Stretch Marks Cream
We offer two creams for the prevention and/or treatment of stretch marks.
Dissolution of Stretch Mark Scars in the Dermis by Enzymes and by Skin Resurfacing
- Stretch Marks
- What Causes Stretch Marks
- Stretch Mark Prevention and Therapy
- How To Get Rid Of Stretch Marks
- How To Reduce Stretch Marks
Two Stretch Mark Creams
Prevents and treats newly formed stretch marks
Treats Old Stretch Mark Scars
Benefits and Features
- Powered by BIOCUTIS® Serum
- Dissolve Scar Tissues with Enzymes
- Create a Non Trauma Exfoliation
- Support Healing By Your Immune System
- The Most Powerful Antioxidants
- Moisturize Deep Within The Skin
- Remove Stretch Marks and Blemishes
- Replenish the Lipid Barrier of The Skin
- No Side Effects
- Money Back Guarantee
- BIOSKINEXFOL Polishes Away Scars With Microcrystals
Ingredients in BIOSKINCARE and in BIOSKINEXFOL
- Distilled Water (solvent)
- Peg-4 Olivate (emulsifier derived from Olive Oil)
- Sorbitan Olivate from Olive Oil (moisturizer)
- Squalane from Olive Oil (natural moisturizer and antioxidant)
- Hyaluronic Acid (in solution – moisturizer)
- Biocutis® Serum: Helix Aspersa Müller Glycoconjugates
- In BIOSKINEXFOL: Corundum (Aluminium oxide) is the second hardest natural mineral known to science (next to diamonds). It is an inert substance and it is insoluble in water and organic substances, and its melting point is 2000 degrees centigrade. MSDS indicate that it is non-carcinogenic and non-toxic for ingestion. These properties make corundum better for exfoliation compared to alternatives like sugar, salt, sea salt (magnesium oxide), or baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).
- Glycerin (humectant)
- SUPRAPEIN™, a synergistic combination of botanical extracts that yields a natural preservative with a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity.
“I suffered from stretch marks produced by my first pregnancy. After my second child, the stretch marks doubled. They were bigger, redder and right on my belly! YUCK! I had to search the internet for a product that cured not just my stretch marks but all the symptoms produced by pregnancy. It took me a while but I found the products with the snail serum! I purchased two bottles and the final results are wonderful! The stretch marks on both my stomach and upper arms are slowly fading. I recommend the products to all my pregnant buddies. Once again, thanks for curing me and giving me perfect skin again.”
Sharon Bosworth – Age 36, Colorado, US
“It was difficult, very difficult to feel comfortable with my body during my pregnancy – 9 months of agony is what I call it. Yet, all those months were worth it when I delivered my little girl, Emily. I was depressed with the way I looked, so my loving husband started looking for a product to boost my self-esteem during those tough months, and he found the product with snail serum. I applied it for 3 months and the results were slow at first, but when I finished my two bottles, I saw superb results. My skin had a glow that I hadn’t seen since I was in high school, and my confidence level was through the roof. Your cream helped me through a really tough mental and physical time of my life, and I will forever appreciate it. Thanks!”
Jerry M. Vasquez – Age 29, Utah, US
Stretch marks also result in a lack of mast cells which protect tissues against disease. They also result in elastolysis (Cutis Laxa). This is when connective tissue becomes inelastic and hangs loosely from the body in folds. Stretch marks lead to reduced fibrillin microfibers, which are required to assemble connective tissue. Stretch marks may result in an increase of perivascular lymphocytes, which is the accumulation of lymphocytes or plasma cells in a dense mass around the vessel.
An indication of inflammation or of an immune reaction. Stretch marks can result in dermal edema. This is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the skin. Many times stretch marks result in densely packed collagen bundles parallel to the skin surface. All of these things are what give stretch marks the scarring appearance (epidermal atrophy).
When the skin is forced to stretch rapidly, it cause the dermis (middle layer) to stretch and break in places. This allows the deeper layers to show through. (The break happens because fibers become too thin by not having enough time to make fibers at the same speed of the stretching.) The color of stretch marks result from blood vessels and will eventually lighten when the blood vessels contract from the surface. (blood red or purple from vessels to silvery-white from pale colored fat underneath)
- Nakamura, Y. et al. Critical role for mast cells in interleukin-1β-driven skin inflammation associated with an activating mutation in the Nlrp3 protein. Immunity 37, 85 95 2012.
This study shows that mast cells are required but are not sufficient for the development of disease in a mouse model of MWS
- A mechanochemical model of striae distensae Article.pdf